Machining industry knowledge


In order to let customers know more about our company and the machinery manufacturing industry, I will give you a detailed introduction to our company's various production equipment and machinery manufacturing industry knowledge.

Machine tool is a machine that processes metal blanks into machine parts. It is a machine that makes machines, so it is also called "working machine" or "machine tool". It is customary to refer to machine tools for short. There are many ways to process mechanical parts in modern machinery manufacturing: in addition to cutting, there are casting, forging, welding, stamping, extrusion, etc., but all parts with high precision requirements and surface roughness requirements are fine. Generally, it is necessary to use the cutting method for final processing on the machine tool. In general machine manufacturing, the machine tool processing workload accounted for 40%-60% of the total machine manufacturing workload, machine tools in the modernization of the national economy plays a major role. Machine tools are mainly classified according to the processing methods and tools used. According to the preparation method of machine tool models formulated by the state, machine tools are divided into 11 categories: lathes, drilling machines, boring machines, grinding machines, gear processing machines, thread processing machines, milling machines, planing and slotting machines, broaching machines, sawing machines and other machine tools. In each type of machine tool, it is divided into several groups according to the process scope, layout type and structural performance, and each group is divided into several series. The following simple to tell you about some lathes.

Today we first introduce the next lathe.

  

A lathe is a machine tool that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. In the lathe can also drill, reamer, reamer, tap, die and knurling tools for the corresponding processing. Lathe is mainly used for processing shafts, discs, sets and other workpieces with rotary surfaces. It is the most widely used type of machine tools in machinery manufacturing and repair factories.

1. The "bow lathe" of ancient pulleys and bow rods as early as the ancient Egyptian era, people have invented the technology of turning wood with a tool when rotating around its central axis. At first, people used two standing trees as supports to set up the wood to be turned, used the elastic force of the branches to roll the rope onto the wood, pulled the rope by hand or foot to rotate the wood, and cut with a knife in hand.

This ancient method gradually evolved and developed into a rope wound two or three times on a pulley. The rope was mounted on an elastic rod bent into a bow, and the bow was pushed and pulled back and forth to rotate the processed object for turning. This is the "bow lathe".

2, the medieval crankshaft, flywheel drive "pedal lathe" in the middle ages, someone designed a pedal to rotate the crankshaft and drive the flywheel, and then drive to the spindle to rotate the "pedal lathe". In the middle of the 16th century, a French designer named Besson designed a lathe with a screw bar to slide the tool. Unfortunately, this lathe was not widely used.

3. The headstock and chuck were born in the 18th century. In the 18th century, another person designed a lathe that uses pedals and connecting rods to rotate the crankshaft, which can store the rotational kinetic energy on the flywheel. The headstock has developed from directly rotating the workpiece to rotating the headstock. The headstock is a chuck for clamping the workpiece.

4. In 1797, the British Maudsley invented the epoch-making turret lathe, which has precision lead screws and interchangeable gears.

Maudsley was born in 1771. At the age of 18, he was the right-hand man of the inventor Brammer. It is said that Bramer had always been a farm worker. When he was 16 years old, he had to switch to a less mobile carpenter job due to an accident that caused his right ankle to be disabled. His first invention was the toilet bowl in 1778. Mozley began to help Brammer design hydraulic presses and other machinery until he left Brammer at the age of 26, because Brammer rudely refused Moritz's request to increase his salary to more than 30 shillings a week.

In the year that Mozley left Brammer, he made the first threaded lathe, an all-metal lathe with a tool holder and tailstock that can move along two parallel rails. The guide surface of the guide rail is triangular, and the screw is driven to move the tool holder laterally when the spindle rotates. This is the main mechanism of modern lathes, which can be used to turn precision metal screws with any pitch.

Three years later, Maudsley built a more complete lathe in his own workshop. The gears on it can be replaced with each other, which can change the feed speed and the pitch of the thread being processed. In 1817, another Englishman, Roberts, used a four-stage pulley and back wheel mechanism to change the spindle speed. Soon, larger lathes were also available, contributing to the invention of the steam engine and other machinery.

5. The birth of various special lathes In order to improve the degree of mechanization and automation, in 1845, Fitch invented the turret lathe in the United States. In 1848, a wheel-returning lathe appeared in the United States. In 1873, Spencer of the United States made a single-axis automatic lathe, and soon he made a three-axis automatic lathe. At the beginning of the 20th century, lathes with gears and gearboxes driven by separate motors appeared. Due to the invention of high-speed tool steel and the application of electric motors, the lathe has been continuously improved, and finally reached the modern level of high speed and high precision.

After the First World War, due to the needs of arms, automobiles and other machinery industries, various efficient automatic lathes and specialized lathes developed rapidly. In order to improve the productivity of small batch workpieces, lathes with hydraulic copying devices were promoted in the late 1940 s. At the same time, multi-tool lathes were also developed. In the mid-1950s, program-controlled lathes with perforated cards, latch plates and dial plates were developed. Numerical control technology began to be used in lathes in the 1960 s and developed rapidly after the 1970 s.

6. The lathe is divided into various types according to the purpose and function area.

The processing object of ordinary lathe is wide, the adjustment range of spindle speed and feed is large, and it can process the inner and outer surfaces, end faces and inner and outer threads of the workpiece. This kind of lathe is mainly operated manually by workers, with low production efficiency, and is suitable for single-piece, small-batch production and repair workshops.

Turret lathes and rotary lathes have turret tool holders or return tool holders that can hold multiple tools. Workers can use different tools to complete multiple processes in one clamping of workpieces, which is suitable for batch production.

Automatic lathes can automatically complete multi-process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to certain procedures, can automatically load and unload materials, and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpieces, which is suitable for large-scale and mass production.

Multi-tool semi-automatic lathes are divided into single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical. The layout of the single-axis horizontal lathe is similar to that of the ordinary lathe, but the two sets of tool holders are respectively installed in the front and back of the spindle or up and down, which is used for processing discs, rings and shaft workpieces, and its productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe.

The copying lathe can imitate the shape and size of the sample or sample, and automatically complete the processing cycle of the workpiece. It is suitable for the small batch and batch production of the workpiece with complex shape, and the productivity is 10~15 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe. There are multi-tool holder, multi-axis, chuck type, vertical type, etc.

The spindle of the vertical lathe is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on the horizontal rotary table, and the tool rest moves on the beam or column. It is suitable for processing large, heavy, and difficult to install workpieces on ordinary lathes. It is generally divided into two categories: single-column and double-column.

At the same time of turning, the tool holder periodically makes radial reciprocating motion for the forming tooth surface of the forklift milling cutter, hob, etc. Usually with a shovel grinding attachment, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate motor shovel grinding tooth surface.

Specialized lathes are lathes used to process specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, and steel ingot lathes.

The joint lathe is mainly used for turning, but after adding some special parts and accessories, it can also be boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding and other processing. It has the characteristics of "one machine with multiple functions" and is suitable for repair work on engineering vehicles, ships or mobile repair stations.

 

 

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Machining industry knowledge

In order to let customers know more about our company and the machinery manufacturing industry, I will give you a detailed introduction to our company's various production equipment and machinery manufacturing industry knowledge. Machine tool is a machine that processes metal blanks into machine parts. It is a machine that makes machines, so it is also called "working machine" or "machine tool". It is customary to refer to machine tools for short. There are many ways to process mechanical parts in modern machinery manufacturing: in addition to cutting, there are casting, forging, welding, stamping, extrusion, etc., but all parts with high precision requirements and surface roughness requirements are generally required to be cut on the machine tool.


Mechanical processing industry knowledge-boring machine

Today we introduce some historical stories about boring machines and some related knowledge. 1, the earliest boring machine designer-Da Vinci boring machine is called "the mother of machinery". Speaking of boring machine, we have to talk about Leonardo da Vinci first. This legendary figure may have been the first designer of a boring machine for metal processing. The boring machine he designed is powered by water or foot pedals. The boring tool rotates close to the workpiece, which is fixed on a moving table driven by a crane. In 1540, another painter drew a picture of "fire engineering" with the same boring machine. At that time, the boring machine was specially used for fine addition of hollow castings.

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